Ammit (Amemet, Kalp Yiyici)
 

Ammit, Ammut, Ammet, Amam, Amemet, Ahemait

Ammit (Amemet, Kalp Yiyici)

Türkçe

Ammit, (diğer söylenişleri: Ammut, Ammet, Amam, Amemet ve Ahemait), Mısır mitolojisinde ölülerin kalbiyle beslenen suaygırı, timsah ve aslanın melezi olan bir canavardır.[1]

Eski Mısırlılara göre ölümden sonra ruh, ağızdan bir kuş şeklinde çıkardı. Bunun için "Tanrı Anubis, elindeki aletle ölünün ağzını açar, bu sayede ölünün ruhu rahatça gidip gelirdi." Yine öteki dünyanın kapılarını da Tanrı Anubis açardı. Batıda olduğu düşünülen ölüler ülkesinin kapılarında Tanrı Amente bekler, "yeni gelenleri kapıda karşılardı."

Dead in Old Egypth

Diriler ve ölüler ülkesi arasındaki korku ülkesini geçince, büyük yargıcın karşısına, Anubis veya Horus tarafından getirilirdi. Orada bir tören düzenleniyor, bu törende ölenin kalbi tartılıyordu. Bu tören sırasında yeraltı tanrısı Anubis elinde bir terazi tutardı. Ölünün kalbi bu terazinin kefelerinden birine konurdu. Öteki kefede ise adaleti ve doğruluğu ölçebilecek bir tüy bulunurdu. Eğer ölü adil ve dürüst bir yaşam sürmüş ise kefeler dengelenirdi. Eğer kalp tartıda eksik gelirse, yemesi için Ament adlı canavara verilirdi. Bütün bu olup biteni Tanrıların katibi Thoth kayda geçirirdi.[2]

Duat, Ammit

İnanışa göre insanlar ölünce, ruhları Duat'ta (Mısır mitelojisinde yer altı dünyası, Araf) yargılanırdı. Bu yargılama, Hakikat'i temsil eden bir tüy yardımıyla yapılır.[3] ölünün ruhu Duat'taki bir mahkeme salonuna Anubis (mumyalama tanrısı) tarafından götürülür ve ölünün kalbi, ki kalbin kişinin ahlaki durumunun kayıdı olduğuna inanılırdı. Osiris tarafından yapılan bu mahkemede, ölünün ruhu temiz ise; Ammit, ölüye dokunamaz. Ruh,, Osiris tarafından Aaru'ya götürülür; ama Maat'ın hakikat ve adaleti temsil eden [3] devekuşu tüyü, ölünün kalbinden daha hafif ise Ammit, ölünün ruhu / kalbiyle beslenir, [4] ve ruh, Duat'ta (Araf'ta) kalmaya mahkum edilir; kişi, ikinci kez ölürdü.

English

In Egyptian mythology, Ammit (also spelled Ammut, Ammet, Amam, Amemet and Ahemait) was the personification of divine retribution for all the wrongs one had committed in life. She dwelt in the Hall of Ma'at, who was the personification of the concept of truth, balance, and order. In the Ancient Egyptian underworld (known as Duat) hearts of the dead were weighed by Anubis against a feather from Ma'at's headdress. The hearts of those who were heavy with wrongdoing failed the test were given to Ammit for her to devour. Those whose souls were devoured were not permitted to enter Aaru, having to be restless forever—effectively dying a second time. If the heart was lighter than a feather then the soul was judged by the god of the underworld, Osiris.

Ammut Papyrus

In Myth

Ammit was not worshipped, and she was never regarded as a goddess. Instead, she embodied all that the Egyptians feared, threatening to bind them to eternal restlessness if they did not follow the principle of Ma'at. Thus Ammit was depicted with the head of a crocodile or dog, the front part of her body as a lioness or leopard, and her hind quarters in the form of a hippopotamus, a combination of those animals which were considered as the most dangerous to the Ancient Egyptians. Although often referred to as a demon, by destroying evil she acted as a force for good.

Her role is reflected in her name, which means Devourer or, more accurately, and less euphemistically, Bone Eater, and her titles such as Devourer of the dead, Devourer of millions (Am-heh in Egyptian), Eater of hearts, Eater of Souls, and Greatness of Death. In some traditions, Ammit was said to stand by a lake of fire, into which the unworthy hearts were cast, rather than eating them. In this role, Ammit was more the lake guardian than a destroyer, which some scholars believe may be evidence of syncretism of a fiery lake belief, from an as yet unidentified elsewhere. In still another version, Ammut ate the condemned person, rather than only the heart. An evil person then [5]

Ammit, Amamet

Ammit (also known as Ammut and Ahemait) was the personification of divine retribution. She sat beside the scales of Ma´at ready to devour the souls of those deemed unworthy. Those unfortunate enough to fail the test would suffer the feared second death, and have no chance of the blissfull life of the field of reeds instead roaming restlessly for eternity. Thankfully, the judge (Osiris) was not too harsh, and the prosecutor (Thoth) was a pretty enlightened guy. The deceased made a negative confession (ie they listed the large number of evil things they had never been guilty of) and then their heart was weighted against the feather of Ma´at (justice or balance). It was not necessary to be totally good, just reasonably well balanced. There were also a number of spells and amulets the deceased could use to increase their chance of success.

Her name, is generally translated as "Devourer", but could also be the chilling "Bone Eater", and she was known as "Devourer of millions" leading to the suggestion that the god Am-heh was one of her aspects. Some scholars have linked Ammit with the Hippopotamus goddess Tawaret, because of the similarities in their appearance and their role in fighting evil. According to some traditions, she lived by the scales of justice, but other sources suggested that she (like Am-heh) lived by a lake of fire into which the souls of the guilty were thrown. According to these traditions, she did not devour the souls, but protected the lake. This has led some to suggested that she may be linked to Sekhmet due to her lionine characteristics and her role in protecting a lake of fire.

She was generally depicted as a demon with the head of a crocodile, the torso of a wild cat, and the hindquarters of a hippopotamus. However, she also took human form.

Ammit was never worshipped, and was not strictly a goddess, but her image was thought to ward off evil. She was the personification of all that the ancient Egyptians feared and a reminder to live by the principles of Maat. Although she was referred to as a demon, she was in reality a force for order. Moreover, each person was at least given the chance to defend their life before being consigned to eternal damnation.[6]

Kaynaklar

[1] tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ammit
{2] http://gizliilimler.tr.gg/Eski-Mısır-h-da--Oe-l.ue.m-ve--Oe-l.ue.m-Gelenekleri.htm
[3] www.siberneturk.com/showthread.php?p=89647
[4] blog.milliyet.com.tr/Print.aspx?BlogNo=98811
[5] en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ammit
[6] www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/ammit.html






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