Antiope
 

Antiope

Antiope

Hippolyte'nin kız kardeşi. Theseus, Antiope'yi kaçırdı.[1]

Yunanlı kahraman Theseus, Karadeniz kıyılarına gelerek Amazonlar'ın ülkesine uğramıştır. Anadolu'nun bu savaşçı kadınları, onları da konukseverlik duygularıyla karşılamışlardır. Ancak onlar; “Oturduğu çulun ipini kesen” türünden insanlar olduğu için Amazonların en güzeli olan Antiope'yi kaçırmışlardır. Amazonlar, bunu bir namus meselesi olarak görürler ve Yunanistan'a sefer düzenlerler. Atina'yı kuşatarak günlerce savaşırlar. Çok canlar kaybedilir. Üstelik Antiope de kendi yurttaşları Amazonlar'a karşı Theseus'la birlikte savaşmış ve öldürülmüştür. Bu durum onları çok üzmüştür. Ve Savaş yorgunu Amazonlar, sevgiyle ölümü yan yana, iç içe yaşayarak çifte ağızlı baltalarıyla geri dönmüşlerdir.[2]

Antiope (Amphion'un Annesi Olan)

Antiope, eski Yunan mitolojisinde Thebai kralı Nikte'nin kızıdır.

Efsaneye göre, satir kılığına giren tanrı Zeus tarafından baştan çıkarılan Antiope, babasının öfkesinden korkarak Sicilya'ya kaçtı ve sonradan ikisi de Thebai hükümdarı olan ikiz Amphion ve Zethos'u dünyaya getirdi. Usta bir müzisyen olan Amphion, lir çalarak büyülediği ağır taşlarla Thebai'nin çevresindeki suru ördü. Zethos, savaşçılığıyla ün saldı ve Thebai'nin adını aldığı Thebe'yle evlendi.[3]

Bir Diğer Antiope Efsanesi

Göz alıcı cazibesiyle Antiope
Yüreğine yangın olur düşer Zeus'un
Bulutların üstünde yürürken delice
Şimşek gibi çakan bir düşünce
İndirir Zeus'u tanrılık tahtından
Ayinlerin ağır başlı Sytrosu
Tanrı Zeus'un yüzünde ışıldar
Fırat'ın kenarında hayallere dalan
Güzeller güzeli Antiope irkilir
Hisseder yüreğinde aşkın nefesini
Tatlı bir melodi gibi çağlayan
Fırat'ın kollarına atar kendini
Vücudu sırılsıklam ihtiras kokar
Dayanamaz Zeus ıslak ten heyecanına
Sarılır büyük bir tutkuyla
Tatlı su kokan tenine Antiope'un
Yakamozları göz kırparken Fırat'ın
Ay çekilir bulutların arasına
Yeni gün doğar aşıkların gözlerinde
Zeus'tan hatıra taşıyan Antiope
Bırakır kendini serin suların derinliğine

Zaman Fırat gibi akan bir su
Durdurulamaz bir küheylan gibi azgın
Tanrılığını hatırlayan Zeus
Çekilir sessizce göklere yine
Antiope'nin kederli yüzünde iki ben
İhanet tanrısı Zeus'tan yadigar
Tanrıçada olsa yine kadın mahkum
Sadakatsizliğin yarattığı cehennemde
Antiope gözyaşlarıyla doğrulur
Tanrı Zeus'a inat yaşar hem de
Serin nefesinde Fırat'ın
Ölümsüzleşir sonra Zeugma efsanesinde
Gökkuşağını bir gül gibi ellerinde taşıyan
Sikyon Kralı Epopeus'un yüreğinde dirilir
[3]

Hippolyte

Antiope (pronounced /ĉnˈtaɪ.əpiː/) is a figure from Greek mythology. She was the only Amazon known to have married. Daughter of Ares and sister to Melanippe and Hippolyte and possibly Orithya, queens of the Amazons, [4] she was the wife of Theseus. There are various accounts of the manner in which Theseus became possessed of her, and of her subsequent fortunes.

In one version, during Heracles' ninth labor, which was to obtain the Girdle of Hippolyte when he captured the Amazons' capital of Themiscyra, his companion Theseus, king of Athens, abducted Antiope and brought her to his home (Diodorus iv. 16). They were eventually married and she gave birth to a son, Hippolytus (Plutarch, Theseus), who was named after Antiope's sister. Soon after, the Amazons attacked Athens in an attempt to rescue Antiope and to take back Hippolyte's girdle; however, the Amazons failed.[5]

During this conflict, known as the Attic War, Antiope was said to have fought on the side of the Amazons. She was seriously wounded and could no longer defend herself from Theseus and his retainers (which included Heracles). Watching these events take place, the Amazon Molpadia killed the queen with an arrow (some say spear), saving her from violation by the Athenian king.

In an alternate story, Theseus had planned to marry Phaedra. Antiope was furious about this and decided to attack them on their wedding day. She promised to kill every person in attendance; however, she was slain instead, fulfilling an oracle's prophecy to that effect, though it took Theseus, Heracles, and an army to kill her. (Hyginus, Fab. 241).

And in yet another alternate version, Hippolyte marries Theseus and the subsequent attack on Athens does not occur.[6]

Theseus and Antiope

Another mythical encounter with Amazons involved Theseus, king of Athens. There are several accounts of this event; however, all center around his abduction of an Amazon queen. Most ancient authors call this queen Antiope, although several refer to her as Hippolyte. Plutarch writes that she was abducted by Theseus and married him. He took her to Athens, but the Amazons followed and waged war upon the city. Eventually the combatants made peace, but ancient authors dispute what happened afterward. Some say that the queen was slain in battle, but other accounts claim that she lived on, and when Theseus took a second wife, Antiope and the Amazons again waged war on Athens, but this time were totally defeated. In Pausanias' Description of Greece, the tomb of Hippolyte is described, and he states that she was the sister of Antiope, not the wife of Theseus. The author Pseudo-Apollodorus also calles the abducted queen Antiope.

One subject all sources agree upon is that Antiope bore a son named Hippolytus, thus she is generally identified as Hippolyte by modern scholars. Their son is one of the main characters in a play by Euripides of the same name. In this play, Hippolytus is a grown man, dedicated to the virgin goddess Artemis, refusing to associate with mortal women. Because of his steadfast devotion to hunting, he earns the wrath of Aphrodite, and she seeks vengeance. Theseus' wife Phaedra falls in love with her stepson because of the goddess's scheming, and takes her own life rather than live dishonorably. However, she blames Hippolytus for her ardor, and leaves a suicide note for Theseus blaming Hippolytus for her death. In a rage, the king curses his son and exiles him, ignoring his pleas of innocence. Shortly afterwards, word arrives in Athens that the prince has been stampeded by his horses, and is on the brink of death. It is only at this point that Theseus regrets his sharp words and anger, when he sees the broken and bleeding body of his son. Artemis appears to him and reveals the truth of Phaedra's passion and its divine source. As Hippolytus dies, he forgives his father for his rash words, and the king is forced to live with the memory that he was the cause of his son's death.

One can see parallels between Hippolytus and his Amazonian mother. Much as the Amazons of legend were purported to hate men, Hippolytus has a similar attitude toward women. In one scene he goes on in great detail about the weakness of women and their uselessness, wishing that men could bear children on their own rather than having to rely upon women. Ironically, his mother and her fellow Amazons were able to do so--according to legend they only visited men for procreation, and killed or maimed any male children borne to them. Knowing the Greek legends about the Amazons, Hippolytus appears simply to be a male Amazon: he despises the opposite sex and enjoys only hunting and warfare. His fate shows that in a man this behavior is just as unusual as in a woman; as a result of the lack of balance in his life, he is punished and killed by Aphrodite.[7]

Kaynaklar

[1] tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiope
[2] www.nizamicubuk.com/deneme-yazilarim/amazonlar
[3] tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiope_(Amphion'un_annesi)
[4] Virginia Brown's translation of Giovanni Boccaccio's Famous Women, p. 41; Harvard University Press 2001
[5] Brown, p. 42
[6] en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiope_(mythology)
[7] Elizabeth Snider, "Wild Women: The Amazons", www.arthistory.sbc.edu/imageswomen/papers/snideramazons/theseus.html






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