Doğu Felsefesi (Eastern Philosophy)
Doğu Felsefesi (Türkçe)
Doğu felsefesi denildiğinde genel olarak Hindistan ve Çin'de başlayan felsefe geleneği kastedilmektedir. Ancak buna Afrika felsefesi, Japon felsefesi, İslam felsefesi, İran felsefesi gibi gelenekleri de eklemek gerekir. Oryantalist düşünceyle Batı felsefesi, kendi tarihini Antik Yunan felsefesi dönemiyle birlikte başlatmakta, rasyonel ve sistematik düşünce geleneğini kendisine ait kılarak kendisini bu eksende tanımlamaktadır. Bu anlamda doğu felsefesi, batı felsefe tarihinin dışında kalan felsefe geleneklerini adlandırmaktadır. Doğu düşüncesi bu anlamda felsefe-dışı olarak görülmektedir. Doğu felsefesi mitolojik ve mistik ya da gizemci ve simgesel yanları olan bir felsefe geleneği olarak değerlendirilir. Bu etki ve köken söz konusu olmakla birlikte, doğu felsefesinin felsefe-dışı sayılması ancak felsefenin belirli bir şekilde anlaşılması ve kategorize edilmesiyle olanaklı olmaktadır. Bu anlayış ve kategorizasyon ise Batı düşüncesinin kendini tanımlamasıyla bağlantılıdır. Oysa Doğu ve Batı felsefeleri olarak adlandırılan felsefe gelenekleri, farklılıklarıyla birlikte, karşılıklı etkileşim ve süreklilik halinde gelişim göstermiş felsefelerdir. "Doğu" bu anlamda, hem daha Batı felsefesi mevcut değilken felsefi içerimli zengin bir düşünce tarihine sahiptir, hem de örneğin Orta Çağ döneminde Batı felsefesi denilen felsefenin taşınması ve geliştirilmesi doğu sayesinde gerçekleştirilmiştir.
Eastern philosophy (English)
Eastern philosophy includes the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Iranian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. The term can also sometimes include Babylonian philosophy and Islamic philosophy, though these may also be considered Western philosophies.
Eastern thought, at least since the rise of European influence in Asia, is often associated with philosophy in the Western sense, especially in certain Asian academic circles. However, before the global influence of European and American technological and scientific education, the idea of philosophy as rigorous science is not found in traditional Eastern writings, which are for the most part religious and mythical.
Many have argued that the distinction between Eastern and Western schools of philosophy is arbitrary and purely geographic and to certain extent, Eurocentric. Certain scholars have argued the distinction is not arbitrary and geographic, but based upon exact linguistic and hermeneutical considerations. It crosses over three distinct philosophical traditions, Indian, Chinese and Persian philosophy which are as distinct from each other as they are from Western philosophy. It could be argued that the idea of some distinct "Eastern" philosophy as opposed to Western Philosophy is simplistic to the point of absurd inaccuracy. It may for example make more sense to include Islamic philosophy within the Western tradition, as it was influenced by Greek philosophy and Hellenistic philosophy, and in turn had a strong influence on Jewish philosophy, Christian philosophy and Western philosophy. The artificial distinction between Eastern and Western philosophy does not take into account the tremendous amount of recent interaction within modern and contemporary Eurasian philosophical traditions, and that the distinction is more misleading than enlightening. However, the exact distinction, based upon linguistic analysis of traditional Eastern writings is not misleading.
For example, it is claimed by some Asian academics, Indian and Western schools of thought, with their robust mind-body conceptual dualism, share consequent tendencies to subjective idealism or dualism. Formally, in a purely speculative sense, they share the rudiments of Western "folk psychology": a sentential psychology and semantics, for example, belief and (propositional) knowledge, subject-predicate grammar (and subject-object metaphysics) truth and falsity, and inference. These religious concepts underwrote the emergence (or perhaps spread) of logic in Greece and India (In contrast to pre-Buddhist China) but no textual evidence of this influence from the period survives. Other so-called noticeable similarities include structural features of related religious beliefs of time, space, objecthood and causation—religious concepts hard to isolate within ancient Chinese religion.
God and The Gods
Because of its origin from within the Abrahamic religions, some Western philosophies have formulated questions on the nature of God and his relationship to the universe based on Monotheistic framework within which it emerged. This has created a dichotomy among some Western philosophies between secular philosophies and religious philosophies which develop within the context of a particular monotheistic religion's dogma, especially some creeds of Protestant Christianity, regarding the nature of God and the universe.
Eastern religions have not been as concerned by questions relating to the nature of a single God as the universe's sole creator and ruler. The distinction between the religious and the secular tends to be much less sharp in contemporary Eastern philosophy, and the same philosophical school often contains both religious and philosophical elements. Thus, some people accept the so-called metaphysical tenets of Buddhism without going to a temple and worshipping. Some have worshipped the Taoist deities religiously without bothering to delve into the theologial underpinnings, while others embrace the Taoist religion while ignoring the mythological aspects. On the other hand, the followers of Hare Krishna sect in Western countries give more emphasis to meditation and yoga and tend to ignore other traditional Hindu rituals.
This arrangement stands in marked contrast to some recent philosophy in the West, which has traditionally enforced either a completely unified philosophic/religious belief system (for example, the various sects and associated philosophies of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam), or a sharp and total repudiation of some forms of religion by philosophy (for example, Nietzsche, Marx, Voltaire, etc.).
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